Various international and regional instruments are part of the international legal framework on firearms. While demonstrating the complexity and multidimensionality of firearms-related problems, this multiplicity also illustrates the need for diverse and multidisciplinary approaches and the central role that firearms continue to play on the international agenda. A youth-friendly legal framework is essential to enable youth political participation. In a third of countries, laws prescribe an age of eligibility for parliament of 25 years or more, which creates a gap between the legal age of majority and/or voting on the one hand and the age at which a person can hold elected office. On the one hand, these instruments provide States with a solid legal and operational framework to strengthen their domestic legal systems, but on the other hand, they can become a source of confusion and contradictions if their relationships and the different context in which these instruments operate are not clear to national decision-makers. For example, the Firearms Protocol deals with the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms from a criminal law perspective in order to provide for measures to combat the cross-border nature of the phenomenon and its links with organised crime. Other instruments, while dealing with similar issues, address the issue from the perspective of disarmament, trade or development, placing more emphasis on measures to reduce the accumulation, spread, diversion and misuse of firearms than on bringing perpetrators to justice. These differences, in addition to linguistic nuances, reflect different, albeit complementary, approaches to the same problem. The most important law in this area is the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia of 2003. which contains the legal qualification of the offence of trafficking in human beings (Article 388) and also provides for a penalty for this act. The main text of the Act was subsequently amended, for example, the minimum penalty for committing the basic form of this offence was increased from two to three years or from five years if the victim was a minor. The law clearly describes and enumerates the acts that are to be considered crimes of trafficking in human beings, and then indicates the objectives to which they apply and the types of exploitation resulting from these acts. The Criminal Code also provides for penalties for persons who knew or could have known of the commission of the acts constituting this crime, and its criminalization is not affected by the victim`s possible consent to exploitation.
The rules of national defence include all laws relating to the roles, duties and responsibilities of national defence institutions, as well as the rules governing national defence procedures. These include legislation defining the rights and obligations of the armed forces; departmental roles and responsibilities; the conditions under which national defence takes place; the conditions under which all other defensive operations inside and outside the territory are conducted; administrative and financial management arrangements; the government`s emergency considerations; etc. Defence legislation should be in line with all relevant international standards and best practices in good governance. This includes democratic control; anti-corruption and integrity-building measures; Codes; respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; supervision, monitoring and evaluation procedures; accountability and transparency; Responsiveness and efficiency. Security sector oversight can affect many different aspects, such as security sector effectiveness, law enforcement, compliance with international standards, financial supervision, and respect for the human rights of armed forces and civilians. Oversight is a broad and crucial concept for good governance. It is therefore crucial that its role in national security sector legislation be recognized and that its practice be institutionalized. Sexual harassment in the workplace (PTSS) is a universal and widespread phenomenon that affects millions of women from all walks of life around the world. It is an endemic problem that has gained visibility and attention since the beginning of the „#MeToo” movement. In this compendium on international and national legal frameworks on sexual harassment in the workplace (the „Code”), STP is understood as a form of gender-based violence that often targets women and occurs in the workplace or workplace.
This includes requests for sexual favors, unwanted sexual advances or any other sexual, physical or verbal behavior, that involves a „quid pro quo” aspect (e.g., requests for sexual favors used for employment decisions) and/or creates an intimidating, hostile, toxic, humiliating or abusive work environment. As one of the pervasive expressions of gender-based violence, it reflects discriminatory social norms, stereotypes, impunity and gender inequality. SHWP is seen as a development challenge and has high economic and social costs. Despite its serious impact on women, employers and society as a whole, the behaviour is widely accepted and downplayed. The Compendium provides an overview of the main international and regional instruments as well as national legislation related to the SHWP. 1999, the Civil Code: – Contains provisions on how to carry out real estate transactions. It defines the types of legal interests that can apply to real estate in general and land in particular. – Requires that legal interests in immovable property be registered (15). 1996, Law on Agrarian Reform: – Defines the basis for the implementation of agrarian reform and covers the entire land fund of Azerbaijan, regardless of whether the land belongs to the State, municipalities or individuals. Private property includes parcels of land legally used by citizens, such as land under residential houses, family plots, individual, collective and cooperative gardens, land managed by state dachas and privatized land of state and collective farms.
– Indicates who can obtain property and land use rights. It also lists the rights of landowners. – According to the law, the different types of property are equal and protected by the State. The law defines how state and collective lands can be privatized and describes the consequences of violating the legal requirements of agrarian reform (15). Since national governments and parliaments can examine the legal framework, they can consider: 1992, Leasing Act: – stipulates that commercial organizations and entities wholly or partially owned by foreign investors may lease property to the owner, not to the person who currently uses or controls the property. The latter type of leasing is only available to national authorities (15). The growing interest of international actors such as the United Nations and other development agencies in youth participation has led to a series of events, declarations and calls to action since the beginning of the 21st century to improve the quality of youth participation in decision-making. In response to this agenda and the 2015 SDGs, national governments have drafted or updated their youth policies and strategies: 127 countries had national youth policies in 2016 (up from 99 countries in 2013). [ii] National policies provide a multi-stakeholder operational framework for developing concrete measures to facilitate meaningful youth participation in decision-making. Law and legal frameworks provide the basis for building strong institutions and policies to help countries address their most pressing development challenges. These, in turn, contribute to changing norms and behaviours that promote progressive development outcomes, benefit women and men equally in all areas and improve society as a whole.
But many challenges remain in all countries, with issues such as child marriage, female genital mutilation and domestic violence remaining prevalent as various forms of gender-based violence. How can countries improve their laws and policies to address these forms of gender-based violence? What exists and what remains to be done in all countries to improve the legal frameworks that would address these problems? With regard to the subordinate legislation relevant to this issue, mention should be made of the Guidelines for the Implementation of the Aliens Act, which, inter alia, determine the basis and duration of stay of foreigners on humanitarian grounds and contain a particularly important clause on the proper management of illegal entry into the territory of the Republic of Serbia for victims of trafficking in human beings. It also contains instructions on the activities of the Agency for the Coordination of the Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings, which define the tasks and responsibilities of the Agency, as well as the Agreement on Cooperation between the Ministries of the Interior, Finance, Justice, Health, Education, Labour and Social Policy in the fight against trafficking in human beings, which provides for the establishment of the national mechanism for joint and continuous action of these ministries against trafficking in human beings. This presupposes trafficking in human beings. and to protect its victims.